The following are the primary services I offer. If you need something done that isn’t listed here, please ask whether I can do it.


Also known as mechanical editing. It includes correcting errors in spelling, grammar, syntax, word usage, and punctuation; checking consistency of styles used for numbers, capitalization, hyphenation, lists, tables, captions, and sidebars; verifying cross-references and alphabetical order; and coding for production.

Line editing

Also known as stylistic editing. It includes clarifying meaning; rewording jargon and awkward phrasing; eliminating wordiness; changing passive voice to active voice; flagging inappropriate, ambiguous, or incorrect statements; ensuring parallel structure; rearranging sentences within paragraphs; correcting inconsistencies in writing style and tone; and flagging discrepancies in plot, setting, and character traits.

Substantive editing

Also known as structural editing or content editing. Reviewing a manuscript with the focus on the big picture, such as the logical development of the content and the appropriateness of the author’s voice and approach. It includes rearranging paragraphs, sections, and chapters; smoothing transitions; deleting unnecessary or redundant material; and recommending additional or new material.

Cleanup editing

Reading through a manuscript that has already been edited to incorporate the author’s replies to the editor’s queries, to double-check that nothing has been missed, and to make sure that no new problems have been introduced.


Comparing typeset copy to its manuscript or previous proof; checking format; and correcting overlooked errors in spelling, grammar, and punctuation.

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“Elaine wields her editorial pencil sharply but always kindly. She is invariably helpful and supportive—everything a writer could wish for in an editor!”
Norman E. Rosenthal, MD, author of Winter Blues and The Gift of Adversity